Backgrounder on Racial Profiling and Police Brutality Against People of Color in New York City Prepared for the Special Rapporteur on Racism on the occasion of his 2008 mission to the U.S.

“Quality of Life” Policing In New York City and its surrounding boroughs, racial profiling and police brutality have been institutionalized through a series of “quality of life” programs enforced by the New York City Police Department (NYPD). These purported “anti-crime” programs are based on a theory of “zero tolerance” for even minor offenses. Under the …

Bobby Sands, Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice

Bobby Sands, officer of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) who rose to international prominence in 1981 when he embarked on a fatal hunger strike while imprisoned for activities related to the IRA’s armed campaign against the British government. Sands’s rough childhood, which included several assaults by unionist paramilitaries and local Protestant gangs, led to his …